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Cerebral Health Home - Center for Neurobiological Science [C.N.S.] - Cognitive Enhancers

Brain Research and Information Network (B.R.A.I.N.)
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Informational Resources on Brain Nutrition, Neuroethics, Brain Medicine, Neurobiological Pharmaceuticals, Neuroscience, Consciousness and Cognitive Enhancement

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Introduction to the Brain

Brain Facts: A Primer on the Brain and Nervous System presented by the Society for Neuroscience pdf

Brain Nutrition

Dietary Supplements: What Do You Know? What Should You Know?
video presentation- October, 2004
by Paul M. Coates, PhD, Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health

The Council for Responsible Nutrition The Science Behind the Supplements

Neuroscience for Kids - Nutrition and the Brain an excellent introductory orientation on how diet and nutrition effects the brain.

Vitamin E Reduces Mental Decline Among Older Persons
by Ray Sahelian, M.D.

Antioxidants improve cognition in elderly women
Nutrition Research Newsletter, May 2003

Can nutrient supplements modify brain function?
The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
by John D Fernstrom

High-dose antioxidant supplements and cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly women
Harvard Medical School and Harvard School of Public Health
by Francine Grodstein, Jennifer Chen and Walter C Willett

Prenatal Choline Supplements Make Brain Cells Larger, Faster
Duke University Medical Center, March 2004

Alcohol and the Brain: Neuroscience and Neurobehavior a special report on the effects of alcohol on the brain

Effects of a 14-Day Healthy Longevity Lifestyle Program on Cognition and Brain Function

You (and Your Brain) are What You Eat by Andrew Weil, M.D

Rise in mental illness linked to unhealthy diets, say studies by Felicity Lawrence

NIH Seeks Strategies to Preserve Brain Health

Cognitive Health by Elizabeth Srejic

Effects of nutrition on brain development in humans by G Robert Delong, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Duke University Medical Center

The Healthy Brain Initiative: A National Public Health Road Map to Maintaining Cognitive Health presented by the CDC and Alzheimer's Association

Mental Health

Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General a superb report on the current state of brain and mental health

Mental health a concern for older people by Bill Mead

May is Mental Health Month, 'Mind Your Health' by Liz Atwell

Long-term Effects of Cognitive Training on Everyday Functional Outcomes in Older Adults The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)

Neuroscience Research

Milestones in Neuroscience Research by E.H. Chudler

UCSF Research Pinpoints Brain Molecule’s Role in Developing Addiction

Immune cells help maintain brain cell renewal by Judy Siegel-Itzkovich

Brain Study Examines Maturation Process by Mary Katherine Flanigan

Autistic brain never 'rests' by Megan Rauscher

Evolution of the Brain and Consciousness

Without Miracles: Brain Evolution and Development

Evolution of Consciousness Literature Review, Notes and Excerpts
by Doug Phillips

The Evolution of Primate Intelligence
by Scott Rifkin

Neuroethics and Cognitive Enhancement

The Oxford Centre for Neuroethics at Oxford University

Policy Implications of Technologies for Cognitive Enhancement The University of Arizona

Neuroethics Website at The University of Pennsylvania

Meeting Neuroethical Challenges in Cognitive Enhancement a recent conference on the ethical and social implications of cognitive enhancement.

Neuroethics: Mapping the Field Conference proceedings. Hosted by Stanford University and the University of California, San Francisco, May 13-14, 2002.

Articles on Brain Function, Supplementation, and Enhancement

New Research Finds that the Common Arguments Against the Development of Cognitive Enhancers are Misguided Nov 14, 2005

The Battle for Your Brain Science is developing ways to boost intelligence, expand memory, and more. But will you be allowed to change your own mind?
by Ronald Bailey

Cognitive Enhancers May 14, 1998
by Jay Ingram

Race Is On for a Pill to Save the Memory New York Times, July 29, 2003
by David Tuller

Brain Gain: Drugs that Boost Intelligence by Julie Erlich

Enhancing Cognitive Function Keeping your memory in tip top shape
LE Magazine May 2000
by Ivy Greenwell

For Fear of a 'Cognitive Divide' Developing safe, specific, powerful memory-improving drugs raises many ethical issues about the implications of cognitive enhancement.
by Eugene Russo

Supercharging the Brain New drugs promise to improve memory and sharpen mental response. Who should be allowed to take them?
The Economist, Sept. 16, 2004

Seeking Smart Drugs Federal and biotech labs research a new generation of drug therapy that improves memory and concentration without side effects
by Eugene Russo

'Smart pills' make headway
by Rita Rubin, USA TODAY

Cognitive Enhancers: The New Frontier in Treating Age and Dementia
by Nadia Halim

No 10 scientist urges brain pills for all by David Cracknell and Steven Swinford

Brain Screensavers

The Secret Life of the Brain Screensaver by (also available in Macintosh format)

Wikipedia Entries

Brain introductory article on brain structure, fields of study, and neurobiology

Neuroscience situates the discipline of neuroscience among related scientific research areas, delineates the history of the field, and lists major themes of research

Nootropics explores the different classes of nootropic substances (cholinergics, dopaminergics, and serotonergics) and their uses for depression, brain energy, concentration and memory enhancement

Groups and Usenet

Cerebral Health Group

Alzheimer's Disease Support Group


Mind-L neurotech


BrainMeta sponsored by

Alzheimer's Association

Cognitive Neuroscience Forum

Immortality Institute

Neurotechnology Software


Advanced Neuroscience

National Institutes of Health Seminar Series in Neuroscience online videos in neuroscience. a high-resolution digital brain atlas based on scanned images of serial sections of monkey brains that is fully integrated with a high-speed database server for querying and retrieving data about primate brain structure and function over the internet.

Brain Conditions and Disorders Research

Alzheimer's Disease

Brain Scans May Predict Alzheimer's Risk

Can You Prevent Alzheimer's Disease? by Christine Gorman

Cognitive enhancement therapy for Alzheimer's disease. The way forward
Parnetti L, Senin U, Mecocci P.
Perugia University, Italy.

Study hopes to identify brain changes in memory loss

Multiple Sclerosis

Vitamin D: a natural inhibitor of multiple sclerosis
Hayes C.E.
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, Volume 59, Number 4, November 2000 , pp. 531-535(5)

Nutrition and diet in the clinical management of multiple sclerosis
A. Payne
Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, Liberton Hospital, Lasswade Road, Edinburgh, UK


Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Schizophrenia: Effects of a 2-Year Randomized Trial on Cognition and Behavior
Gerard E. Hogarty, MSW; Samuel Flesher, PhD; Richard Ulrich, MS; Mary Carter, PhD; Deborah Greenwald, PhD; Michael Pogue-Geile, PhD; Matcheri Kechavan, MD; Susan Cooley, MSN; Ann Louise DiBarry, MSN; Ann Garrett, PhD; Haranath Parepally, MD; Rebecca Zoretich, MSEd
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61:866-876.

Neurotransmitter Information and Research

Neurotransmitters and Neuroactive Peptides an introductory presentation on neurotransmitters

Brain Neurotransmitters by Ben Best


Acetlycholine a solid introduction to acetylcholine by Dr. William S. Messer, Jr., Professor of Medicinal and Biological Chemistry at The University of Toledo


Dopamine Wikipedia article


Serotonin and Its Uses by Andrea Byrd

Serotonin: The Neurotransmitter for the 90's by Ronald F. Borne, Ph.D., Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi


Histamine by Dr. William S. Messer, Jr., Professor of Medicinal and Biological Chemistry at The University of Toledo


Norepinephrine in Psychiatry by John J. Spollen III, MD

Norepinephrine by Gary Aston-Jones


Epinephrine Wikipedia entry

Cognitive Enhancers Research Abstracts


Acetyl-L-carnitine for dementia.
Hudson S, Tabet N.
Psychiatry, Maudsley Hospital, Maudsley Hospital, London, UK

A 1-year controlled trial of acetyl-l-carnitine in early-onset AD.
Thal LJ, Calvani M, Amato A, Carta A.
Department of Neurosciences, University of California-San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093-0624, USA.

Feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress.
Hagen TM, Liu J, Lykkesfeldt J, Wehr CM, Ingersoll RT, Vinarsky V, Bartholomew JC, Ames BN.
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

Comparison of the effects of acetyl l-carnitine and amantadine for the treatment of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: results of a pilot, randomised, double-blind, crossover trial
Tomassini V, Pozzilli C, Onesti E, Pasqualetti P, Marinelli F, Pisani A, Fieschi C.
Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Rome "La Sapienza", viale dell' Universita 30, Rome 00185, Italy.

Effects of acetyl-L-carnitine in Alzheimer's disease patients unresponsive to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
Bianchetti A., Rozzini R., Trabucchi M.
Geriatric Research Group, Brescia, Italy

Alpha GPC

Cognition stimulating drugs modulate protein kinase C activity in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of …
L Lucchi, A Pascale, F Battaini, S Govoni, M … - Life Sci, 1993 -

Multicentre study of l-alpha-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine vs ST200 among patients with probable senile …
L Parnetti, G Abate, L Bartorelli, D Cucinotta, M … - Drugs Aging, 1993 -

Effects of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine on the EEG power spectrum in the rat
C Lacomba, R Cagiano, O Maci, J Valerio, V Cuomo - Drug Development Research, 1992 -

Chronic L-alpha-glyceryl-phosphoryl-choline increases inositol phosphate formation in brain slices …
G Aleppo, F Nicoletti, MA Sortino, G Casabona, U … - Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1994 -

alpha-Glycerophosphocholine in the mental recovery of cerebral ischemic attacks. An Italian …
G Barbagallo Sangiorgi, M Barbagallo, M Giordano, … - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1994 -


Nootropic Agents Enhance the Recruitment of Fast GABAA Inhibition in Rat Neocortex
Douglas S.F. Ling and Larry S. Benardo
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA; Department of Neurology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA

The Mechanism of Action of Aniracetam at Synaptic -Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Receptors: Indirect and Direct Effects on Desensitization
J. Josh Lawrence, Stephan Brenowitz, and Laurence O. Trussell
Oregon Hearing Research Center and Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon

Allosteric potentiation of quisqualate receptors by a nootropic drug aniracetam
I Ito, S Tanabe, A Kohda and H Sugiyama
Fujigotemba Research Laboratories, Chugai Pharmaceutical Company, Gotemba, Japan.

Physiology Graduate Program, University of California, San Francisco 94143-0450

AIT-082 Neotrofin, leteprinim potassium

AIT-082, a Cognitive Enhancer, Is Transported into Brain by a Nonsaturable Influx Mechanism and out of Brain by a Saturable Efflux Mechanism
Eve M. Taylor, Rongzi Yan, Nils Hauptmann, Timothy J. Maher, Daniela Djahandideh and Alvin J. Glasky
NeoTherapeutics Inc., Irvine, California


Scientific Basis for the Therapeutic Use of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha): A Review
Lakshmi-Chandra Mishra, MD (Ayur), PhD, Betsy B. Singh, PhD, Simon Dagenais, BA

Studies on the immunomodulatory effects of Ashwagandha
Ziauddin M, Phansalkar N, Patki P, Diwanay S, Patwardhan B.
Medinova Diagnostics Center, Indian Drugs Research Association, Pune, India.

Dendrite extension by methanol extract of Ashwagandha (roots of Withania somnifera) in SK-N-SH cells
Neuroreport. 11(9):1981-1985, June 26, 2000.

Axon- or dendrite-predominant outgrowth induced by constituents from Ashwagandha
Neuroreport. 13(14):1715-1720, October 7, 2002.


Potentiation of the cytotoxic action of melphalan and "activated" cyclophosphamide against cultured tumor cells by centrophenoxine
NE Sladek

Modulatory effects of centrophenoxine on different regions of ageing rat brain
Bhalla P, Nehru B.
Department of Biophysics,Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India. Exp Gerontol. 2005 Aug 30

Influence of centrophenoxine on the incorporation of 32P into glycerophosphatides of neurons and gliocytes
Woelk H.

Study of the effect of centrophenoxine on experimental animals poisoned with chlordiazepoxide
Mirchev N.

Age-related decline in multiple unit action potentials of CA3 region of rat hippocampus: correlation with lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin concentration and the effect of centrophenoxine.
Sharma D, Maurya AK, Singh R.
School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

Effect of centrophenoxine on the lipofuscin pigments in the neurones of senile guinea-pigs.
Nandy K, Bourne GH.


Choline: A Vital Amine
Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine

Choline and Human Nutrition
S H Zeisel, J K Blusztajn
Deapartment of Nutrition, School of Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Department of Pathology, Boston University School of Medicine

Choline: an essential nutrient for humans
Steven H. Zeisel MD, PhD
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

Choline: an important nutrient in brain development, liver function and carcinogenesis
S. H. Zeisel
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599

Choline: Needed for Normal Development of Memory
Steven H. Zeisel, MD, PhD
Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)

Health Benefits of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)
Horrocks LA, Yeo YK
Docosa Foods Ltd, 1275 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH, 43212-1155, USA

Visual acuity and the essentiality of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in the diet of term infants
Birch EE, Hoffman DR, Uauy R, Birch DG, Prestidge C.
Retina Foundation of the Southwest, Dallas, Texas 75321, USA.

Decrease in neuron size in docosahexaenoic acid-deficient brain.
Ahmad A, Moriguchi T, Salem N.
Section of Nutritional Neuroscience, Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry & Biophysics, Division of Intramural Clinical and Biological Research, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Therapeutic effects of docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester in patients with generalized peroxisomal disorders.
Martinez M, Vazquez E, Garcia-Silva MT, Manzanares J, Bertran JM, Castello F, Mougan I.
Hospital Materno-Infantil Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain, and the Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.

Efficacy and Safety of Docosahexaenoic Acid and Arachidonic Acid Addition to Infant Formulas: Can One Buy Better Vision and Intelligence?
Winston W. K. Koo, MBBS, FACN
Departments of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan

Modification by docosahexaenoic acid of age-induced alterations in gene expression and molecular composition of rat brain phospholipids
Gwendolyn Barceló-Coblijn, Endre Hgyes, Klára Kitajka, László G. Puskás, Ágnes Zvara , László Hackler, Jr. , Csaba Nyakas , Zsuzsa Penke and Tibor Farkas
Institute of Biochemistry and Laboratory of Functional Genomics, Biological Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary; Neurophysiological Research Laboratory of Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, H-1085 Budapest, Hungary; and Department of Comparative Physiology, University of Szeged, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary


Treatment, enhancement, and the ethics of neurotherapeutics
Paul Root Wolpe
Department of Psychiatry, Department of Medical Ethics, Department of Sociology, and Center for Bioethics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors as Cognitive Enhancers
M. Levenson, Ph.D. and J. David Sweatt, Ph.D.
Baylor College of Medicine Department of Neuroscience

An hypothesis on the role of glucose in the mechanism of action of cognitive enhancers
GL Wenk - Psychopharmacology (I 989) -
... of action of cognitive enhancers ... These four lines of research have implications for
the role of glucose in the action of specific cognitive enhancers. ...

Cognitive enhancers in theory and practice: studies of the cholinergic hypothesis of cognitive …
TW Robbins, G McAlonan, JL Muir, BJ Everitt - Behav Brain Res, 1997 -
... Cognitive enhancers in theory and practice: studies of the cholinergic hypothesis
of cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Authors ...

Effects of four non-cholinergic cognitive enhancers in comparison with tacrine and galanthamine on …
P Chopin, M Briley - Psychopharmacology (Berl), 1992 -
Effects of four non-cholinergic cognitive enhancers in comparison with tacrine
and galanthamine on scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats. ...

… flow abolished by scopolamine is reversed by cognitive enhancers associated with cholinesterase …
H Tsukada, T Kakiuchi, I Ando, Y Ouchi - 1997 -
... Functional Activation of Cerebral Blood Flow Abolished by Scopolamine Is Reversed
by Cognitive Enhancers Associated with Cholinesterase Inhibition: A Positron ...

Cognitive enhancers as adjuncts to psychotherapy: use of D-cycloserine in phobic individuals to …
KJ Ressler, BO Rothbaum, L Tannenbaum, P Anderson, … - Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2004 -
Click here to read Cognitive enhancers as adjuncts to psychotherapy: use of
D-cycloserine in phobic individuals to facilitate extinction of fear. ...

Cognitive enhancers and hippocampal long-term potentiation in vitro
S Kaneko, T Maeda, M Satoh - Behav. Brain Res, 1997 -
... Cognitive enhancers and hippocampal long-term potentiation in vitro. Authors:
Kaneko S.; Maeda T.; Satoh M. 1. Source: Behavioural ...

AMPA receptor modulators as cognitive enhancers
G Lynch - Curr. Opin. Pharmacol, 2004 -
... AMPA receptor modulators as cognitive enhancers. Author: Lynch G. Source: Current
Opinion in Pharmacology, February 2004, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 4-11(8). ...

… brain of the senescence-accelerated mouse: an animal model useful for studies on cognitive enhancers
Y Nomura, Y Kitamura, T Ohnuki, T Arima, Y … - Behav. Brain Res, 1997 -
... NMDA, benzodiazepine receptors and protein kinase C in the brain of the
senescence-accelerated mouse: an animal model useful for studies on cognitive enhancers. ...

CREB and the discovery of cognitive enhancers
R Scott, R Bourtchuladze, S Gossweiler, J Dubnau, … - J. Mol. Neurosci, 2002 -
Page 1. CREB and the Discovery of Cognitive Enhancers Roderick Scott, 1 Rusiko
Bourtchuladze, 1 Scott Gossweiler, 1 ... Page 3. CREB and Cognitive Enhancers 173 ...

Applications software as cognitive enhancers
JJ Lambrecht - Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 1993 -
Title: EJ469263 - Applications Software as Cognitive Enhancers. Abstract:
Discusses the use of microcomputer applications software ...

Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo for memory enhancement: a randomized controlled trial.
Solomon PR, Adams F, Silver A, Zimmer J, DeVeaux R.
Bronfman Science Center, Williams College, 33 Hoxsey St, Williamstown, MA 01267, USA.

Neuroprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract
Ahlemeyer B, Krieglstein J.
Institut fur Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Fachbereich Pharmazie der Philipps-Universitat Marburg, Ketzerbach 63, 35032 Marburg, Germany.


Structure of acetylcholinesterase complexed with the nootropic alkaloid, (−)-huperzine A
Mia L. Raves, Michal Harel, Yuan-Ping Pang, Israel Silman, Alan P. Kozikowski & Joel L. Sussman
Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel, The Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida 32224, USA, Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel, Institute of Cognitive and Computational Sciences, Georgetown University Medical School, Washington, DC 20007-2197, USA,
Department of Biology, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000, USA

Efficacy of tablet huperzine-A on memory, cognition, and behavior in Alzheimer's disease.
Xu SS, Gao ZX, Weng Z, Du ZM, Xu WA, Yang JS, Zhang ML, Tong ZH, Fang YS, Chai XS, et al.
Zhejiang Supervision and Detection Station of Drug Abuse, Zhejiang Medical University, Hangzhou, China.


Lack of efficacy of hydergine in patients with Alzheimer's disease
TL Thompson, CM Filley, WD Mitchell, KM Culig, M LoVerde, and RL Byyny
Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver.

The effects of an ergot alkaloid derivative (Hydergine) on aspects of psychomotor performance, arousal, and cognitive processing ability
I Hindmarch, AC Parrott, and M Lanza


Sustained efficacy and safety of idebenone in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: update on a 2- …
H Gutzmann, D Hadler - J. Neural Transm, 1998 -
Sustained efficacy and safety of idebenone in the treatment of Alzheimer's
disease: update on a 2-year double-blind multicentre study. ...

A controlled study of 2 doses of idebenone in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease
G Weyer, RM Babej-Dolle, D Hadler, S Hofmann, WM … - Neuropsychobiology, 1997 -
A controlled study of 2 doses of idebenone in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. ...idebenone. PMID: 9267856 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Idebenone in patients with Friedreich ataxia
L Schols, M Vorgerd, M Schillings, G Skipka, J … - Neurosci Lett, 2001 -
... Idebenone in patients with Friedreich ataxia. ... Idebenone, a free-radical scavenger, protects mitochondrial function in in vitro models of FA. ...

Idebenone. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic use in …
JC Gillis, P Benefield, D McTavish - 1994 -
Idebenone. A review ... Zealand. Idebenone is a benzoquinone compound which has been investigated in elderly patients with dementia. Its ...

The effect of idebenone, a coenzyme Q analogue, on hydrophobic bile acid toxicity to isolated rat …
KN Shivaram, BM Winklhofer-Roob, MS Straka, MW … - Free Radic Biol Med, 1998 -
... The effect of idebenone, a coenzyme Q analogue, on hydrophobic bile acid toxicity to isolated rat hepatocytes and hepatic mitochondria. ...

Idebenone treatment in Friedreich patients: one-year-long randomized placebo-controlled trial
C Mariotti, A Solari, D Torta, L Marano, C … - Neurology, 2003 -
... Idebenone treatment in Friedreich patients: One-year-long randomized placebo-controlled trial. ... Idebenone in patients with Friedreich ataxia. Neurosci Lett . ...


The response to levodopa in Parkinson's disease: imposing pharmacological law and order
Nutt JG, Holford NH.
Department of Neurology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201-3098, USA.

Frontal’ Cognitive Function in Patients With Parkinson's Disease ‘On’and ‘Off' Levodopa
A.M. Gotham, R.G. Brown and C.D. Marsden
From the MRC Movement Disorders Research Group, University Department of Neurology and Parkinson s Disease Society Research Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, London


Double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed dose trial of minaprine in patients with major depression.
Amsterdam JD, Dunner DL, Fabre LF, Kiev A, Rush AJ, Goodman LI.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia

Minaprine, a new drug with antidepressant properties.
Biziere K, Worms P, Kan JP, Mandel P, Garattini S, Roncucci R.


Oxiracetam prevents the hippocampal cholinergic hypofunction induced by the NMDA receptor blocker …
P Belfiore, F Ponzio, R Biagetti, C Berettera, M … - Neuroscience Letters, 1992 -
Oxiracetam prevents the hippocampal cholinergic hypofunction induced by the
NMDA receptor blocker AP7. Belfiore P, Ponzio F, Biagetti ...

Interactions between oxiracetam, aniracetam and scopolamine on behavior and brain acetylcholine
G Spignoli, G Pepeu - Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 1987 -
Interactions between oxiracetam, aniracetam and scopolamine on behavior and brain
acetylcholine. ... Lower and higher doses of oxiracetam were ineffective. ...

… of hippocampally-mediated learning and protein kinase C activity by oxiracetam in learning-impaired …
DE Fordyce, VJ Clark, R Paylor, JM Wehner - Brain Res, 1995 -
... Enhancement of hippocampally-mediated learning and protein kinase C activity
by oxiracetam in learning-impaired DBA/2 mice. Authors ...

Clinical studies with oxiracetam in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct …
C Villardita, S Grioli, C Lomeo, C Cattaneo, J … - Neuropsychobiology, 1992 -
Clinical studies with oxiracetam in patients with dementia of Alzheimer
type and multi-infarct dementia of mild to moderate degree. ...

Oxiracetam in dementia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study
G Bottini, G Vallar, S Cappa, GC Monza, E Scarpini … - Acta Neurol Scand, 1992 -
Oxiracetam in dementia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. ... Pyrrolidines;
oxiracetam. PMID: 1414239 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Oxiracetam prevents the MK-801 induced amnesia for the elevated plus-maze in mice
Z Hlinak, I Krejci - Behav Brain Res, 2000 -
... Oxiracetam prevents the MK-801 induced amnesia for the elevated plus-maze
in mice. Authors: Hlinak Z. 1 ; Krejc I. Source: Behavioural ...

Oxiracetam in the treatment of primary degenerative and multi-infarct dementia: a double-blind, …
G Maina, L Fiori, R Torta, MB Fagiani, L Ravizza, … - Neuropsychobiology, 1989 -
Oxiracetam in the treatment of primary degenerative and multi-infarct
dementia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Maina ...

Oxiracetam increases the release of endogenous glutamate from depolarized rat hippocampal slices
M Marchi, E Besana, M Raiteri - Eur J Pharmacol, 1990 -
Oxiracetam increases the release of endogenous glutamate from depolarized rat
hippocampal slices. Marchi M, Besana E, Raiteri M. Istituto ...

Oxiracetam and aniracetam increase acetylcholine release from the rat hippocampus in vivo
MG Giovannini, P Rodino, D Mutolo, G Pepeu - Drug Development Research, 1993 -
... Research Article Oxiracetam and Aniracetam Increase Acetylcholine ... ABSTRACT The effect
of two nootropic drugs, oxiracetam and aniracetam, on cholinergic neu- ...

Selegiline versus oxiracetam in patients with Alzheimer-type dementia
A Falsaperla, PAM Preti, C Oliani - Clin Ther, 1990 -
Selegiline versus oxiracetam in patients with Alzheimer-type dementia. Falsaperla
A, Monici Preti PA, Oliani C. Department of Neurology ...

Phenylethylamine (PEA)

Comparative effects of amphetamine, phenylethylamine and related drugs on dopamine efflux, dopamine uptake and mazindol binding
EM Parker and LX Cubeddu
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill


Phosphatidylserine specific binding protein in rat brain: purification and characterization
T. Nakaoka, N. Kojima, T. Hamamoto, N. Kurosawa, Y. C. Lee, H. Kawasaki, K. Suzuki and S. Tsuji
Glyco Molecular Biology, Frontier Research Program, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Saitama.


Smart Drugs: Enhancing Cognitive Function with Piracetam

Piracetam improves activated blood flow and facilitates rehabilitation of poststroke aphasic patients.
Kessler J, Thiel A, Karbe H, Heiss WD.
Max-Planck-Institute for Neurological Research, Cologne, Germany.

Long-term and high-dose piracetam treatment of Alzheimer's disease

B Croisile, M Trillet, J Fondarai, B Laurent, F Mauguiere and M Billardon
Department of Neurology, Hopital Neurologique, Lyon, France.

Piracetam relieves symptoms in progressive myoclonus epilepsy: a multicentre, randomised, double blind, crossover study comparing the efficacy and safety of three dosages of oral piracetam with placebo
Marjaleena Koskiniemi, Betty Van Vleymen, Lauri Hakamies, Salla Lamusuo, Jaakko Taalase
Haartman Institute, Department of Virology, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 3, SF-00290, Helsinki, Finland, UCB Pharma SA, Chemin du Foriest, Braine-l'Alleud, B1420 Belgium, Central Hospital of Vaasa, SF-65130 Vaasa, Finland, Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Turku, SF-00290 Turku, Finland, Central Hospital of Mikkeli, SF-50100 Mikkeli, Finland

Modulating effect of the nootropic drug, piracetam on stress- and subsequent morphine-induced prolactin secretion in male rats
A Matton, S Engelborghs, F Bollengier, E Finne and L Vanhaeist
Dept. of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.

Design and Study of Piracetam-like Nootropics, Controversial Members of the Problematic Class of Cognition-Enhancing Drugs
Fulvio Gualtieri, Dina Manetti, Maria Novella Romanelli and Carla Ghelardini
Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita' di Firenze, Via G. Capponi 9, I-50121 Firenze, Italy
Dipartimento di Farmacologia Preclinica e Clinica, Universita' di Firenze, Viale Pieraccini 6, I-50139 Firenze, Italy


Neurochemical studies on the mechanism of action of pyritinol.
Greiner HE, Haase AF, Seyfried CA.
Biological Research, Department of Neurochemistry, E. Merck, Darmstadt, FRG.

On the effects of pyritinol on functional deficits of patients with organic mental disorders.
Herrmann WM, Kern U, Rohmel J.

Activation PET as an instrument to determine therapeutic efficacy in Alzheimer's disease
W. D. Heiss, J. Kessler, I. Slansky, R. Mielke, B. Szelies and K. Herholz
Max-Planck-Institut fur Neurologische Forschung and Neurologische Universitatsklinik, Koln, Germany.

Protection of cell proteins against free-radical attack by nootropic drugs: scavenger effect of pyritinol confirmed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy.
Pavlik A, Pilar J.
Institute of Physiology, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague.

Neurochemical effects of pyritinol and their relevance for the treatment of brain function deficits in old age
Dr. Christoph A. Seyfried
Department of Neurochemistry, Biological Research, E. Merck, Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany

Pyritinol hydrochloride and cognitive functions: influence on children in slow learner classes
U Walti, M Kuenzler, J Schild, F Vassella, E Pavlincova, J Bircher and N Herschkowitz

Efficacy of pyritinol versus hydergine upon cognitive performance in patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type: A double-blind multi-center trial
Alzheimer's Research (United Kingdom) , 1996, 2/3 (79-84)


Vinpocetine for cognitive impairment and dementia
Szatmari Sz, Whitehouse PJ
Cochrane Review 

Neuroscience Graduate School Rankings
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(rankings compiled by Doug Phillips, Director of R&D)

1. University of California at San Diego San Diego, CA
2. Stanford University
Stanford, CA

3. University of California at San Francisco
San Francisco, CA
Harvard University Cambridge, MA
5. Johns Hopkins University
Baltimore, MD
Yale University New Haven, CT
7. Columbia University
Columbia, NY
8. Washington University
St. Louis, MO
9. University of California at Berkeley
Berkeley, CA
Massachusettes Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA
11. University of California at Irvine Irvine, CA

12. California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA
University of California at Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA
14. University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA
15. Duke University
Durham, NC

16. Brandeis University Waltham, MA
17. University of Washington Seattle, WA
18. Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH
19. University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI
20. University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX
21. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, NC
22. Rockefeller University New York, NY
23. University of Chicago Chicago, IL
24. Emory University Atlanta, GA
25. University of Colorado Boulder, CO

Videos with Prof. Douglas J. Phillips II, Director of R&D

Part I: Introduction

Part II: Frontal Lobes


Cerebral Health Home l Center for Neurobiological Science [C.N.S.] l Cognitive Enhancers

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